International Disease Collating Centre Report for July

The International Collating Center, Newmarket, United Kingdom, and other sources reported the following disease outbreaks.

The final outbreak in the 2014/2015 occurrence of vesicular stomatitis in the USA was reported early in the first quarter of 2015. It involved two horses on a premises in southern Arizona, both infected with the New Jersey serotype of the virus.

One case of glanders was confirmed in Germany. There was no evidence of spread of infection to other horses on the index premises. The source of infection remains undetermined.

Outbreaks of strangles were reported by Denmark, France, Germany, Ireland, and the USA. Denmark confirmed an isolated case of the disease. A total of 14 outbreaks were diagnosed in France, involving primarily Thoroughbreds and Warmbloods. Germany and the USA reported that strangles was endemic. The disease was considered widespread in Germany. At least 16 states in the USA recorded outbreaks of strangles, with multiple cases confirmed on premises in Kentucky, Maryland and South Carolina.

Equine influenza was reported by France, the UK, and the USA. Three outbreaks were confirmed in France and five in the UK. The USA reported influenza as endemic, with outbreaks diagnosed in Kentucky (two), Michigan (one), and South Dakota (one).

Equine herpesvirus-1 and -4 (EHV-1 and EHV-4) related diseases were recorded in France, Germany, Ireland, Japan, Switzerland, the UK and the USA. Respiratory disease was confirmed in France (five outbreaks), Ireland (12 cases), Switzerland (undefined number on several premises), the UK (three cases, separate premises), and the USA (disease endemic, indeterminate number of cases). Abortion due to EHV-1 was diagnosed in France (eight cases, all but two on individual farms), Germany (five cases), Japan (28 cases together with deaths in eight neonatal foals on 19 premises), and the USA (five cases). EHV-1 associated neurologic disease was reported by France (one case), Germany (two cases), Switzerland (cases on several premises), and the USA (two cases). Respiratory disease caused by EHV-4 was confirmed by France (15 outbreaks), Germany (one case), Switzerland (indeterminate number on several premises), and the UK (four outbreaks on separate premises). The UK reported one case of EHV-4 abortion.

Two cases of equine coital exanthema (EHV-3) were confirmed in the USA (Kentucky).

Numerous cases of EHV-2 infection associated with signs of respiratory disease were reported in the USA. A few were dual infections with EHV-5.

Cases of equine arteritis virus infection were recorded by Germany (carrier stallion) and Switzerland (one case). Canada and Germany reported equine infectious anemia. Four cases were confirmed on individual premises in two Western provinces in Canada; three outbreaks were recorded in Germany.

Equine piroplasmosis was considered endemic in France and the United Arab Emirates, with isolated clinical cases in non-Thoroughbreds in the latter.

Germany reported contagious equine metritis in two non-Thoroughbred stallions on one premises.

Infection with Leptospira spp. was confirmed by France (one case of uveitis) and the USA (two cases of abortion). The USA diagnosed six cases of nocardioform placentitis and abortion.

Cases of salmonellosis were reported by Ireland (three cases), Switzerland (two cases of S. typhimurium), and the USA (eight outbreaks associated with Salmonella Group C3 strains).

Clostridial enteritis was recorded in the USA, including isolated cases of C. perfringens Type A in foals, two cases of C. difficile, and one case of C. sordellii. The USA also reported cases of equine proliferative enteropathy in Thoroughbred foals in two states.

Two outbreaks of rotavirus infection were recorded in France.

A fatal case of Eastern equine encephalomyelitis was confirmed in a horse in Florida, USA.

Rhodococcal-related disease was reported as endemic in the USA, with at least 22 cases diagnosed.

Infection with Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis was reported as endemic in the USA.

Ireland reported three cases of atypical myopathy.

This article is from the Equine Disease Quarterly, published by the University of Kentucky College of Agriculture, Food and Enviornment Department of Veterinary Science and sponsored by Lloyd’s of London and its Kentucky agents. You may subscribe to this publication for free.

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