Replication Characteristics of EHV-1 and EHV-3

Author:
Publish date:

An open access article published on BioMed Central from the journal Veterinary Research looked at respiratory and vaginal replication and development of EHV-1 and EHV-3 as well as neurpathogenic EHV-1. “Our study has shown that (i) EHV-1 has developed in evolution a predisposition for respiratory mucosa and EHV-3 for vaginal mucosa, (ii) abortigenic EHV-1 replicates better in vaginal mucosa than neuropathogenic EHV-1 and (iii) EHV-3 demonstrated a strict epithelial tropism whereas EHV-1 in addition hijacked MC to invade the lamina propria.” You can read the complete open access article online.

arab-stallion-and-mare-1500

Abstract

Replication kinetics and invasion characteristics of equine herpesvirus-1 and -3 (EHV-1/-3) in nasal and vaginal mucosae were compared using explants. The explants were cultured during 96 h with little change in viability. The tissues were inoculated with EHV-1 03P37 (neuropathogenic), 97P70 (abortigenic) and EHV-3 04P57, collected at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h post inoculation (pi) and stained for viral antigens. Both EHV-1 and EHV-3 replicated in a plaquewise manner. The plaques were already observed at 24 h pi, their size increased over time and did not directly cross the basement membrane (BM). However, EHV-1 infected the monocytic cells (MC) and hijacked these cells to invade the lamina propria. In contrast, EHV-3 replication was fully restricted to epithelial cells; the virus did not breach the BM via a direct cell-to-cell spread nor used infected MC. EHV-1-induced plaques were larger in nasal mucosa compared to vaginal mucosa. The opposite was found for EHV-3-induced plaques. Both EHV-1 strains replicated with comparable kinetics in nasal mucosa. However, the extent of replication of the abortigenic strain in vaginal mucosa was significantly higher than that of the neuropathogenic strain. Two-to-five-fold lower numbers of EHV-1-infected MC underneath the BM were found in vaginal mucosa than in nasal mucosa. Our study has shown that (i) EHV-1 has developed in evolution a predisposition for respiratory mucosa and EHV-3 for vaginal mucosa, (ii) abortigenic EHV-1 replicates better in vaginal mucosa than neuropathogenic EHV-1 and (iii) EHV-3 demonstrated a strict epithelial tropism whereas EHV-1 in addition hijacked MC to invade the lamina propria.

Authors

Haileluel Negussie, Laboratory of Virology, Department of Virology, Parasitology and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, and College of Veterinary Medicine and Agriculture, Addis Ababa University; Yewei Li, Laboratory of Virology, Department of Virology, Parasitology and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University; Tesfaye Sisay Tessema, Institute of Biotechnology, College of Natural and Computational Sciences, Addis Ababa University; Hans J. Nauwynck, Laboratory of Virology, Department of Virology, Parasitology and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University.