First Florida Clade 1 in Nordic Countries

An article published in Veterinary Microbiology details the first finding of a Florida Clade 1 equine influenza positive in a Nordic country. You can read this article online if you have access, or purchase access to this article, on


Equine Influenza Virus (EIV) is a major cause of respiratory disease in horses and the virus constantly undergoes antigenic drift. Here we characterize and describe the HA1 and the NA genes of H3N8 within samples obtained from outbreaks in Sweden during November–December 2011. Both clade 1 and clade 2 viruses of the Florida sublineage were identified. The index case of clade 2 was transported to Sweden from Spain through the Netherlands, whereas the clade 1 had its origin from a Swedish stud farm. The clade 1 virus was efficiently spread between training yards by unvaccinated young horses, but vaccinated horses were also presented with clinical signs of respiratory disease. No virus of the Eurasian lineage was isolated during this outbreak. Clade 1 has previously been described in outbreaks in numerous of other countries, but this is the first time it has been detected in Sweden. The results from this study shows the importance of including both clade 1 and clade 2 of the Florida sublineage in equine influenza vaccines, supporting the ESP and OIE recommendations.


Helena Back, Louise Trieberg Berndtsson, and SIamak Zohari, Department of Virology, Immunobiology and Parasitology, National Veterinary Institute, Uppsala, Sweden; Gittan Grondahl, Department of Animal Health and Antimicrobial Strategies, National Veterinary Institute, Uppsala, Sweden; Karl Stahl, Department of Disease Control and Epidemiology, National Veterinary Institute, Uppsala, Sweden; John Pringle, Department of Clinical Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.

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